Article Charges and Copyright

Publication fees are required for publication in the journals of the American Astronomical Society. These cover some of the costs of publication and allow us to more fairly share charges between researchers and libraries. Please be aware that the journals do not receive direct funding from any external agencies. Support from publication charges allows lower subscription prices and thus a greater circulation for the journal as well as open access after one year.

Author Publication Charges

The American Astronomical Society bases its calculation of author charges using an approach that counts units of information in the digital form that the author supplies; we call these units "digital quanta". Digital quanta are units of information in digital form that can include words, figures, tables, data components, and figures within a figure set.

The table below lists the types of digital quanta and the corresponding components equal to a single quantum. Digital quanta will be charged at a rate of $30 per quantum with the exception of word quanta, which will be charged at a rate of $27 per quantum.

Type of quanta Components/Quanta charged
Words 350
Figures 1
Tables 1
Data Components (MRTs, MPG, etc…) 1
Figure Sets 100 Figures

We provide estimates of the article charges during the peer review process, or you can estimate the charges using our online tool. The tools to provide these estimates may not accurately deal with all parts of the manuscript, (e.g., equations), which will differ between the LaTeX/Word source you provide and the final published XML/HTML version.

In addition to the above digital quanta, there are surcharges for specific cases. These are listed in the table below.

Type of surcharge Cost
Letters handling charge $120
Errata handling charge $30

For information regarding page charges for articles accepted prior to April 1, 2011, go here.


Before your article can be published in an American Astronomical Society (AAS) journal, we require you to grant and assign the entire copyright in it to the AAS. The copyright consists of all rights protected by the copyright laws of the United States and of all foreign countries, in all languages and forms of communication, including the right to furnish the article or the abstracts to abstracting and indexing services, and the right to republish the entire article in any format or medium.

In return, the AAS grants to you the non-exclusive right of republication, subject only to your giving appropriate credit to the journal in which your article is published. This non-exclusive right of republication includes your right to allow reproduction of parts of your article wherever you wish, and permits you to post the published (PDF) version of your article on your personal website. To protect the copyright in your article, the original copyright notice as it appears in the journal should be included in the credit.

If your article is accepted for publication we require you to read, sign, and return the Copyright Agreement to us. We cannot publish your article without this approval. In the event that your article is not accepted for publication, you will be notified in writing and the copyright and all rights conferred by copyright shall revert to you.

The agreement should be signed by at least one of the authors (who agrees to inform the others, if any) or, in the case of a work made for hire, by the employer.

An author who is a U.S. Government officer or employee and who prepared the article as part of his or her official duties does not own any copyright in it. If at least one of the authors is not a U.S. Government employee, one of those non-government authors should sign the Copyright Agreement.

Reproduction of copyrighted materials

The AAS is eager for the information published in its journals to reach the widest possible audience and it encourages the reuse of figures, tables, or other materials in review articles, textbooks, and other appropriate means of scholarly communication. To ensure the long-term access of the research community to its archives, the AAS holds the copyright on all copyrightable materials published in its journals, but the Society grants control of the right to reproduce the material to the original authors as long as they are alive.

Multiple copies may be made for classroom use provided 1) that no charge is made for such copies (other than a nominal charge to cover the cost of reprography), 2) that such copies are not made or distributed for commercial advantage, and 3) that the copies bear the American Astronomical Society copyright notice.

Libraries and other users registered with the Copyright Clearance Center (CCC) Transactional Reporting Service may photocopy items for internal or personal use, or the internal or personal use of specific clients in the U.S.A., provided that the per-copy fee is paid directly to CCC, 222 Rosewood Drive, Danvers, MA 01923, U.S.A.

Permission to use AAS material in other publications

Permission to reproduce material from articles published in The Astronomical Journal or The Astrophysical Journal or The Astrophysical Journal Letters or The Astrophysical Journal Supplement is managed on behalf of the AAS by IOP Publishing. In order to gain permission to reproduce material under AAS copyright, you should do the following:

  1. Obtain consent from one of the original authors of the article from which you wish to extract materials. In the event that the original authors are deceased or unavailable, contact IOP Publishing at for advice. A form is available for you to ask for this consent.
  2. Notify when consent has been obtained from the original authors. Give the original citation for the figure, table, or other material that you plan to reproduce as well as the information about where the material is to appear.
  3. If your publisher needs a formal indication of this permission, send a request to If special forms are required by your publisher, be sure to include copies of the forms. Requests for formal permission will normally be satisfied within a week of the request.
  4. All reproduced material must be properly identified by the citation of the original publication and may carry the indication, "reproduced by permission of the AAS."

Permission to use non-AAS material in AAS journals

When you submit an article for publication in an AAS journal and you choose to use material (including short extracts or diagrams) published previously by other authors in journals other than those of the AAS, then you must first obtain the written permission of the author and the publisher concerned. You must submit signed copies of the applicable permission forms when you submit your article. We do not perform this task for you.

Permission forms

Permission request forms are available for the use of authors of AAS journal articles, as well as those authors who may wish to make use of material from AAS journals.